Imaginary numbers matematik 4 matematik 5

Alternative representations of complex numbers

As mentioned in the latest post any complex number may be represented by an arrow in the complex plane. This number is unambiguously described by two numbers: its real part x and its imaginary part y. z= x+iy. This is called the Cartesian representation. (Rene Descartes)

From the figure below it is evident that

x = r cosφ

y = r sin φ  and thus z = r( cosφ + i sinφ) . This is called polar representation of the complex number z. r is the modulus of the vector z (i.e. its length) and φ is called the argument of z.    The modulus can be  computed by multiplying the  complex number z with its conjugated complex number z

By adding the  Taylor series for cos(x) and  i sin(x) we get the series expansion for the exponential function eix. This relation is called Euler’s formula.

This leads to the exponential representation of a complex number:

z= r e(iφ) 


 File:Complex conjugate picture.svg